Mapping the Seismic Bedrock of the Po Plain (Italy) through Ambient‐Vibration Monitoring. The mean residual of the solution (Figure 14b) is 0.152 mm, and it is comparable with the mean error value of the fitted geodetic data (0.110 mm). Another partially reconstructed braincase from Lake Eyasi in Tanzania is low in profile, although the upper scale of the occipital is vertical. Average temperature and sea surface level from 35,000 to 15,000 years before present related to the present level (1990) by L. David Roper. Mammuthus trogontherii Finally, the lowermost reverse polarity identified in some cores down to a maximum depth of 220 m (i.e., cores RL2, RL3, RL4, RL7) is ascribed to the middle Matuyama chron (C1r.2r; 1.072–1.778 Ma). The best fit solution gave a Te value of 19.9 km, corresponding to a flexural rigidity of 4.97 × 1022 N m, and the unloading distribution reported in Figure 14b. [1] The reduction in CO2 may be related to changes in volcanic outgassing, burial of ocean sediments, carbonate weathering or iron fertilization of oceans from glacially induced dust. [40] Basing on the evidence brought by our modeling, we interpret the Y surface as marking the transition from a subsidence‐dominated stage to an uplift‐dominated stage occurring in the proximal Po basin at ∼0.45 Ma in response of the flexural rebound of the Alps. [21] Paleomagnetic properties were studied on a total of 80 cubic (∼8 cm3) samples collected from cohesive, fine‐grained sediments (Table 1). The third sequence (PS3; ∼0.45 Ma to present), marked at the base by another regional unconformity (Y surface), is characterized by proximal braided fluvial deposition under combined conditions of confinement, erosion, and bypass. In particular two factors were essential for the formation of the great glaciers. The fine tuning of the forcing period related to eccentricity with one of the natural periods of GRWs modified the dominant resonance period which became that of the eccentricity. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. It shows a succession of unfossiliferous silt and clay packages alternated with fine‐ to medium‐grained sand, often arranged in thin fining‐upward cycles, each of them commonly attaining one to few meters in thickness. It consists of ∼40,000 km of reflection seismics and stratigraphies from ∼330 wells for hydrocarbon exploration, made kindly available by Eni E&P. , “ Pleistocene (irvingtonian) artiodactyla from porcupine cave ” in Biodiversity Response to Climate Change in the Middle Pleistocene: The Porcupine Cave Fauna from Colorado, A. D. Barnosky, Ed. The contour of the (left) parietal is rounded when the skull is viewed from the back. We then explore an erosion‐driven flexural model of the Alps to explain the middle Pleistocene uplift of the northern Po Plain and the formation of the Y surface, which we interpret it occurred in response of enhanced physical erosion triggered by the waxing and waning of Alpine glaciers since the late Early Pleistocene global cooling. The time‐calibrated vertical and horizontal facies architecture is then integrated with previous studies in order to define the main depositional sequences of the uppermost ∼200 m of the Po Plain. [3] At a regional scale, different and independent lines of evidence confirm erosion and rock uplift in the Alps during the late Neogene cooling [e.g., Cederbom et al., 2004; Scardia et al., 2006; Champagnac et al., 2007; Pignalosa et al., 2011] as well as a dramatic increase of sediment influx in the Alpine peripheral basins [Kuhlemann et al., 2002]. If this is so, it seems that Pekin Man would be roughly contemporaneous with Ternifine and with Java Man of the Trinil beds, all being late Early Middle Pleistocene. Black is normal polarity; white is reverse polarity. The data were acquired with a sampling rate of 1000 Hz, a recording window of 1.024 s, and acquisition groups made up by a double string of 14 Hz geophones. The authors wish to thank Eni E&P for providing subsurface data and the Swiss Federal Office of Topography for the geodetic data. Velocity model and depth‐converted, high‐resolution seismic profile (BSC line) from the western sector of Milan. Fieldwork on local-site seismic response in the Po Plain: examples from ambient vibration array and single station analyses. Geology and Geophysics, Physical Stratigraphy and evolution of a long‐lived fluvial system in the southeastern Alps (NE Italy): The Tagliamento conglomerate, Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps, Cosmogenic nuclide‐derived rates of diffusive and episodic erosion in the glacially sculpted upper Rhone Valley, Swiss Alps, Continental depositional systems of the Quaternary of the Po Plain (northern Italy), A new active tectonic model for the construction of the Northern Apennines mountain front near Bologna (Italy), Subsurface geological structure of the Po Plain (Italy), Rome, Italy, Thermochronological evidence for a late Pliocene climate‐induced erosion rate increase in the Alps, Quaternary glaciation history of northern Switzerland, A generalized simulated‐annealing optimization for inversion of first‐arrival times, The tectonic expression slab pull at continental convergent boundaries, Subsurface magnetostratigraphy of Pleistocene sediments from the Po Plain (Italy): Constraints on rates of sedimentation and rock uplift, Late Matuyama climate forcing on sedimentation at the margin of the southern Alps (Italy), Recent vertical movements from precise levelling in the vicinity of the city of Basel, Switzerland, Inclination flattening and the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis, Geological processes during the Quaternary, Solid sediment load history of the Zambezi Delta, Relation between rock uplift and denudation from cosmogenic nuclides in river sediment in the central Alps of Switzerland, Trends, rhythms and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present, Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2–4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates, Pleistocene sandur deposits represent braidplains, not alluvial fans, AC demagnetization of rocks: Analysis of results. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. [30] The integration of seismic profiles, facies analysis, and magnetobiostratigraphy from our and literature data [Ori, 1993; Di Dio, 1998; Carcano and Piccin, 2002; Muttoni et al., 2003; Scardia et al., 2006] allows to characterize the three main depositional sequences PS1, PS2, PS3, and the bounding R and Y unconformities in the Pleistocene Po basin infill (Figure 11). Oceanography, Interplanetary [50] Data acquisition was carried out with a fixed cable configuration consisting of 5 m geophone spacing in the northern half of the line and 10 m spacing in the southern half, respectively. [2010]. [43] 1. Late Middle Pleistocene ecology and climate in Northeastern Thailand inferred from the stable isotope analysis of Khok Sung herbivore tooth enamel and the land mammal cenogram DSpace Repositorium (Manakin basiert) Einloggen. Seismic facies 3 belongs to the PS2 sequence; its layered structure suggests a distal braidplain, made up mainly of alternating sand and gravel bodies attributed to glacial/interglacial cycles or arising from a fluvial depositional style characterized by repeated lateral migration of the channel network. As expected, the depositional environment structure yields a strong control by on the acoustic response, where seismic reflections are physical surfaces separating lithologies with strongly contrasting acoustic impedance (e.g., fines versus gravel/sand layers). Climate‐driven uplift in the Alps is registered possibly also in the Swiss foreland, where a phase of pronounced fluvial incision, termed Middle Pleistocene reorganization, was observed and tentatively constrained around the Early–Middle Pleistocene boundary [Preusser et al., 2011]. On the right, the resistivity log and geological interpretation of the Trenno 1 well are displayed. Journal of Advances [14] The overall lithostratigraphy consists of three superposed continental depositional systems, bounded by the regional seismic reflectors (unconformities) R and Y (Figure 4), and corresponding to the PS1, PS2, and PS3 stratigraphic sequences, as described hereafter from bottom to top. In core RL9, sediment accumulation rates can be only roughly estimated in the range of ∼11–26 cm/kyr because of the uncertainties related to the C1r.1n/1r polarity reversal depth and the absence of the C1r.2r/1n reversal. (b) Calculated flexural rebound of the Alps. It is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earth's surface was covered by ice. Equus, including a previously unidentified large species that we attribute to Equus aff. ↵ [2011] tentatively ascribed the Y surface to MIS 16 lowstand at ∼0.63 Ma by counting (undated) glacial/interglacial cycles starting from the R surface at MIS 22 [Muttoni et al., 2003]. Moving from this consideration, we tested the flexural response of the northern Po Plain to the erosional unloading of the Alps by fitting present‐day geodetic data from a 20 km wide swath trending from Basel across the Alps to Milan (Figures 13 and 14a) with a simple 2‐D model [Jordan, 1981]. the Middle Pleistocene stratigraphy, climate changes, and the evolution of environments on the Japanese Islands (Kumai, 1991; Progress in Quaternary Research in Japan, 2009). A similar vertical succession of seismic facies (PS1–PS3 sequences) has been recognized also elsewhere in the Po Plain, e.g., ∼15 km eastward of the BSC line [Francese et al., 2005]. Abstract. Is there a rapid drop in [44] 2. But the natural period closest to 41 Ka is 49.2 Ka related to the subharmonic mode n10. Evidently this pollen and fauna is asso-ciated with "Homno pekinensis." Early hominins in Europe: The Galerian migration hypothesis. A retardation of about 5,000 years occurred between temperature and insolation cycles. Its base is tentatively placed in cores RL8 and RL9 at ∼48 m, and in cores RL10 and RL11 at ∼21 m and ∼42 m, respectively (Figures 5–8). As a whole, PS1 represents a shallowing‐upward sequence rapidly filling ∼300 m of residual accommodation space (∼0.3 two‐way time seconds from base to top of clinoforms;Figure 2). [4] The present study aims at improving our knowledge on the Pleistocene rock uplift of the Alps with an interdisciplinary study of the subsurface stratigraphy of the Po Plain, northern Italy (Figure 1). Processes, Information Because of the progressive infilling trend of the Po basin from west to the east, the meandering river system passed eastward (toward Venice) to cyclic alternations of shallow marine (shelf and prodelta) and transitional deposits (delta plain, beach, and lagoon). Interestingly, subsidence outward from the flexural nodes in both distal foreland basins (Swiss, Po Plain) is theoretically expected. Physics, Solar Highest Pluvial-Lake Shorelines and Pleistocene Climate of the Western Great Basin Marith Reheis U.S. Geological Survey, MS-980, Federal Center, Box 25046, Denver, Colorado 80225 Received November 10, 1998 Shoreline altitudes of several pluvial lakes in the western Great Basin of North America record successively smaller lakes from the early to the late Pleistocene. An inter-disciplinary and multi-scale approach to assess the spatial variability of ground motion for seismic microzonation: The case study of Cavezzo municipality in Northern Italy. Pleistocene terrestrial succession 3.1.1 Historical development Since Pleistocene stratigraphical successions in terrestrial envi-ronments are largely governed by climatic fluctuations, as indi-cated by lithology, structural features, fossils, soils and geomor-phology, inferred climate has been used in … In recent years, the interpretation of selected industrial seismic profiles led to the recognition of regional reflectors in the Po basin, associated to important changes in style of sediment deposition and basin evolution [Di Dio, 1998; Carcano and Piccin, 2002; Ghielmi et al., 2010] (Appendix A). As a consequence, in the western cores (RL3, RL8, RL11, RL10, RL9), cyclothems lie below the cored succession as documented in the BSC line (seismic facies 1) and in the Trenno 1 well (Figure 3). [5] The Po Plain is located between the Alps and the Apennines thrust belts and evolved as a foreland basin of the Apennines since the Messinian (Figure 1) [Pieri and Groppi, 1981]. Details on data acquisition and processing are reported in Appendix B. First evidence for Late Pleistocene to Holocene earthquake surface faulting in the Eastern Monferrato Arc (Northern Italy): Geology, pedostratigraphy and structural study of the Pecetto di Valenza site. Datum is referred to the ground surface; core sites are reported in, Mean sediment accumulation rates for the late Early Pleistocene succession of the northern Po basin calculated according to the magnetochronologic constraints provided by, Topography of the Alps and the Po Plain displaying geodetic uplift data from precise leveling [. [2002], and Scardia et al. These data are obtained by repeated precise leveling measures of a same benchmark over a time interval ranging from years to many decades. The PS1 shelf is characterized by the coarsening‐upward cyclothems observed in the resistivity logs of Trenno 1 and Gaggiano 1 (Figures 2 and 3) and produced by the glacioeustatic oscillations on shelfal settings [Scardia et al., 2006]. The MPT can now be reproduced by numerical models that assume a decreasing level of atmospheric carbon dioxide, a high sensitivity to this decrease, and gradual removal of regoliths from northern hemisphere areas subject to glacial processes during the Quaternary. In detail, PS3 is composed almost exclusively of coarse‐grained, poorly sorted gravels, interpreted as a stack of proximal outwash plain deposits, bounded by low‐rank erosional surfaces. Black is normal polarity; white is reverse polarity. This datum is used here to infer an age of ∼0.45 Ma for the Y surface, albeit a precise age remains rather poorly determined. This magnetic overprint is thought to have chemically originated as a consequence of iron mobilization produced by groundwater level oscillations. [26] On the whole, the upper 63 ± 13 m of the northern Po basin sediments have a normal magnetic polarity referred to the Brunhes chron (C1n; present–0.781 Ma). By measuring the magnetization of sediments as function of depth (i.e., time), it is possible to obtain a magnetic polarity stratigraphy insofar as magnetizations characterized by northerly (southerly) directions and positive (negative) inclinations are interpreted as acquired during normal (reverse) polarity intervals of the Earth's magnetic field of known age [e.g., Lourens et al., 2005]. [19] The observed facies association points to a high‐energy fluvial system interpreted as a proximal braidplain, where the vertical and lateral stack of dominant coarse‐grained fluvial deposits likely explains the scattered reflection observed in the seismic facies 4. As a novel conclusion, the Y surface is interpreted to mark the switch from a depositional stage to an uplift stage at ∼0.45 Ma, an interpretation that is not substantially altered even allowing an older age for the Y surface of ∼0.63 Ma [Garzanti et al., 2011]. A newly acquired, high‐resolution seismic profile and a critical review of industrial seismic lines were integrated with sedimentologic observations on four magnetostratigraphically dated continental cores to reconstruct a three‐sequence evolution of the Pleistocene clastic infill in the northern Po basin. [2006], ranging from ∼24 cm/kyr (core RL7) to 42 cm/kyr (core RL1). [2006], (2) a pack of low‐amplitude, laterally discontinuous reflectors, characterized in the Trenno 1 resistivity log by fine‐grained lithologies arranged in fining‐upward cycles and attributed to low‐energy fluvial environments, (3) a pack of layered high‐amplitude, laterally continuous reflectors, interpreted as fluvial deposits of alternating high/low energy, and (4) an interval rich in seismic diffractions and characterized by poorly defined reflectors, probably related to the occurrence of massive, coarse‐grained fluvial deposits. The transition happened approximately 1.25–0.7 million years ago, in the Pleistocene epoch. Properties of Rocks, Computational In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the glacial sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America, and several hundred in Eurasia. It starts with an abrupt boundary at its base, and consists of thick packages of alternating medium‐ to coarse‐grained sand, gravel, and subordinate silt. Geophysics, Biological Alpine topography in the light of tectonic uplift and glaciation. We interpret this depositional system as a distal braidplain with wandering fluvial channels. Stratigraphy, lithology, unblocking temperatures, and inclination values of the characteristic remanent magnetization of core Gaggiano RL9. Since the Middle Pleistocene, the outward migration of the Apennines stalled, and no new thrusts developed [Picotti and Pazzaglia, 2008; Ghielmi et al., 2010]. [42] A peripheral basin of the Alps, the Po Plain, evolved during the Pleistocene in response to global climate forcing on sedimentation and rock uplift, and three main sequences have been recognized. Petrographic and fission tracks studies on Pleistocene sediments from the Po Plain, however, do not support geological or geomorphologic changes in source areas testifying for substantial watershed stability (see discussion by Garzanti et al. These results are compatible with the presence of magnetic minerals with contrasting coercivities interpreted as magnetite and hematite, as deduced also from the maximum unblocking temperatures of the medium (0.4 T) and high (2.5 T) coercivity components of, respectively, ∼570°C and ∼680°C (Figure 9); in some samples (e.g., RL10‐74.3;Figure 9), hematite is the dominant magnetic phase. The maximum unblocking temperatures of the Fe‐sulfides and magnetite are shown. In our view, the Y surface does not simply (or only) marks a glacial lowstand, but rather it signals a profound climate‐driven tectonic control on the depositional style of the proximal Po basin. Seismic profile through the proximal Po basin (courtesy of Eni E&P) and related stratigraphic interpretation. Well-mixed greenhouse gases tend to warm the tropics substantially as water vapor … Statistical analysis of inclination‐only data [Arason and Levi, 2010] revealed mean ChRM inclinations (Table 2) shallower than the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination of ∼64° for the mean site latitude (∼N45°30′; Table 1), likely because of depositional inclination errors or postdepositional compaction of the sediments [e.g., Tauxe, 2005]. [5], A study published in January 2021 [6] approaches the MPT in a new way based on a revisited Milankovitch theory in which the solar and orbital forcing of the climate system occurs under the mediation of very long-period Rossby waves winding around the subtropical gyres. Map of the Po Plain showing the depth to the base of the Pliocene, contoured in 1 km intervals, and the main tectonic features of the bordering Alps and Apennines. [2] Comprehensive models indicate that the late Neogene global cooling trend [e.g., Zachos et al., 2001] enhanced physical erosion in world's mountain belts, which consequently experienced isostatic rebound due to mass unloading [e.g., Molnar and England, 1990]. Mineral cooling ages suggest enhanced uplift and erosion since ∼5–2 Ma in the Swiss Alpine proforeland basin and in the Western Alps [Cederbom et al., 2004; Pignalosa et al., 2011], whereas cosmogenic burial ages document rapid valley incision in the Central Alps after ∼0.8 Ma [Häuselmann et al., 2007]; similarly, magnetostratigraphy has been used to constrain erosion and rock uplift along the Alpine margins in southeastern France [Dubar and Semah, 1986] and northern Italy [Scardia et al., 2006] during the Brunhes chron (<0.78 Ma). One was that the temperature dropped so much that the snow did not melt during the summer and thus could accumulate year after year. [2011]). [1988]that the erosion‐driven flexural rebound of an orogenic belt, e.g., the Alps, can trigger uplift and erosion in the proximal sector of the peripheral basins, e.g., the northern Po Plain, where long‐term uplift rates on the order of ∼0.1 mm/yr with respect to the sea level have been observed since the Middle Pleistocene [Scardia et al., 2006] and are comparable to modern rates inferred from geodetic measurements [Arca and Beretta, 1985; Schlatter et al., 2005], attributed to erosion [Champagnac et al., 2009]. Learn about our remote access options, Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, CNR, Monterotondo Scalo, Italy, Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali, CNR, Milan, Italy, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy, Alpine Laboratory of Paleomagnetism, Peveragno, Italy, Burren Resources Petroleum Ltd., Burun Field, Balkanabat, Turkmenistan, Regione Lombardia, Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica, Milan, Italy. [2005] are relative to Aarburg (Switzerland), assumed to be stable (0 mm/yr). Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Nonlinear The overall river progradation from west to the east makes the vertical transition from marine to continental deposits diachronic at the basin scale inasmuch as it becomes progressively younger eastward. In our simulations of the middle Pliocene climate we use the GISS GCM and data generated and/or compiled by the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping) project, part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Global Change Research Program . It ended 11,700 years ago and is preceded by the Pliocene Epoch and followed by … It has been shown that denudation rates are spatially correlated with both elevation and present‐day rock uplift [e.g.,Wittmann et al., 2007] and probably coupled [Champagnac et al., 2009]. Below, a normal polarity magnetozone follows down to the depth of 151 ± 21 m and is interpreted as the Jaramillo subchron (C1r.1n; 0.988–1.072 Ma). We also took into account previous magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data provided by several additional cores from the Po Plain (seeFigure 4 for location of all the cores) studied in the last decade (core RL2 is from Muttoni et al. The abrupt change between the PS1 meandering river plain (section 4.1) and the PS2 distal braidplain corresponds to the R surface observed in the seismic profiles (Figures 2–4) and correlated to the onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps [Muttoni et al., 2003]; hence, the distal braidplain fluvial system is interpreted as the distal outwash plain produced by Alpine valley glaciers [e.g., Zielinski and Van Loon, 2003] during glacial stages. The calculated rates are consistent with sediment accumulation rates of other cores reported by Scardia et al. in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), Journal of Geophysical Research The cycle lengths have varied, with an average length of approximately 100,000 years. isotope record to develop a series of temporally high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions spanning the Middle Pleistocene to Recent, which we use to map ancestral climatic envelope reconstructions for North American rattlesnakes. [32] The onset of Pleistocene major glaciations in the Alps occurred within the late Matuyama and produced the R surface at ∼0.87 Ma [Muttoni et al., 2003], which is a major sequence boundary in the Po basin (Figure 4) marking the substantially synchronous and widespread progradation of PS2 braidplain deposits over the PS1 meandering river plain (Figure 11). Excluding local, short‐wavelength deformations due to active thrusts, the regional uplift and loss of accommodation space recorded by PS3 along the proximal Po basin are interpreted as the effect of the flexural unloading of the eroding Alpine orogen, with a wavelength of ∼270 km and estimated erosion values ranging from 1.3 to 1.7 mm in the axial sector to 0.1–0.3 mm at the Alpine margins. [1] This interdisciplinary study on the subsurface stratigraphy of the Po Plain (northern Italy) brings new evidence in support of a climate‐driven erosional unloading of the Alps since the Middle Pleistocene. [23] The intensity of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is on the order of 10−3–10−4 A/m with 20% of the samples in the 10−2 A/m range. The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), also known as the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution (MPR), is a fundamental change in the behaviour of glacial cycles during the Quaternary glaciations. 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