The pier base planes were enlarged and fewer (but bigger) individual ashlars were used per layer to reduce the number of joints. Furthermore, the outer part of the main basement for the west barrel vault, which was three metres wide and had not collapsed, had to be included. Only high quality sandstone ashlars whose strength had been tested and whose dimensions had to be within a tolerance of not more than 1.5 mm (!) Photo courtesy Prof. Wolfram Jaeger. The photos for the publications on the occasion of the consecration could be now taken. were used for the piers. Three basic forms of prefabricated vault blocks were laid on a falsework using the Gothic type of bond (two stretchers, one header in alternation). Finally, after the Berlin wall came down in 1989, the citizens of Dresden started intense discussions on the reconstruction of the Frauenkirche. Though small in scale compared to other cities developed at the same time, Dresden is a good blend of density with ambience and quality. The last arches between piers and spar-type frames were built and ties inserted. Interior building work continued at a high pace. It was a troubled path they followed, faced with repeated controversy, but their dream eventually came true. The completion of construction lot 2 was scheduled for 11th April 1997. The massive contemporary black altar stone erected in the centre of the Lower Church is impressive and open to various interpretations. The pace and complexity of the work in the church's interior had clearly increased. The choice of stone and mortars was a complex and extensive process, which could only be completed with the aid of specialists. The flood catastrophe in August also took its toll in the Frauenkirche. During the night of 13-14 February, British Royal Air Forces dropped 1478 tons of high explosives and 1182 tons of incendiary bombs on the first bombing run and 800 tons of bombs on the … Access to the dome is via entrance G and visitors will travel the first 24-meters up using a lift before tackling narrow stairs and a spiraling r… All data such as dimensions, finding place, a brief description of the find with a sketch and neighbouring finds were subsequently used for preliminary identification. The massive base was largely kept without ornamentation, forming an elegant and elaborate dome heightened by a slim obelisk, creating a slender but grand view of the church. Jazz1979 07:11, 18 November 2005 (UTC) In the course of the reconstruction of the nearby Frauenkirche a debate arose over a restoration of the pre-war design, however, from 2000 to 2004, the interior was refurbished in its 1955 condition. An initial three-dimensional model was created based on the recovered data using the latest computer technology. Prof. Jörg Peter was appointed stress analysis engineer. Following completion of the paintings on the inner dome by Christoph Wetzel, the rotary platform could be removed and left space for the installation of the pews and organ. Painters had begun to decorate the interior. A special atmosphere was created by the music from the organ, designed with great care by Gottfried Silbermann. Both shells of the dome had been penetrated by eight openings for windows. The measured plans done by Kiesling from 1949 – 1959 were particularly useful in forming a good base of documentation for the reconstruction phases. Furthermore, the connection between the gallery girders and the masonry was improved. The underside will be plastered and the top will be covered by an inserted ceiling. The history of Dresden's landmark A heap of rubble was all that was left of one of Dresden's most beautiful buildings at the end of WWII. The outer shape of the church building was restored to its original glory through the removal of the final external scaffolding on July 30, 2004. The mound of rubble was initially divided into grid squares to allow a better orientation and to document the actual condition. The Frauenkirche collapsed on 15 February 1945, two days after the devastating bombing of Dresden, the history of the church building, which was completed in 1743 by Baroque architect George Bähr, seemed to have come to an end. Still maintaining its Baroque style but respecting change, the Frauenkirche, though a reconstruction, combines the best technology of today with the beauty of the past, thus giving us the pleasure of enjoying a historical structure and the advantages of both eras. The huge dome of the Dresden Frauenkirche is a magnificent sight from inside and outside. And, in total, 60 years went by before the Frauenkirche in all its baroque beauty could reopen its doors to the world. Dresden Frauenkirche differs from the also famous Munich Frauenkirche because the Dresden church is Protestant. The tension applied by each of these members can be monitored with computer software and administered time and again. Nevertheless, the Church in the State of Saxony and the State Office of Monument Preservation favoured the rebuilding scheme. Dresden’s Frauenkirche church was destroyed by bombing and fire at the end of the war in 1945. Dresden Frauenkirche The Dresden Frauenkirche or Church of Our Lady in one of the grandest buildings in all of Europe, but it is its destruction, and reconstruction is to me, what makes this church stand out. The inner dome with its circular 6 m opening was thereby completed as the connection between church room and main dome room. Stucco workers were attaching decorations to the capitals of the inner piers, parapets of the galleries and inner dome. Today, this has been recalculated with the help of computers to rebuild a much more stable dome for the Frauenkirche. In 1993, work to clear the rubble began. Already its predecessor churches were dedicated to the Mother of God and called Frauenkirche. Exact controls are absolutely necessary when planning and implementing the project as well as when checking the quality. After 12 years, the time has come to lift the tower "cap" - along with its pinnacle cross - into place, outwardly completing reconstruction of the world famous domed Frauenkirche. Four arches spring from each of the piers. After restoration, this big part 35 was lifted on top of the staircase tower G on 10th August 2001. Since its consecration, hundreds of thousands of people have taken part in religious services and guided tours, attended concerts, lectures etc. Work began on clearing and sifting through the rubble according to archaeological principles on 4th January 1993 with the intention of using as many original stones as possible to rebuild the Frauenkirche. Since dome construction was a new engineering feat at this time, designers from the surrounding areas went to Rome to study St. Peter’s construction. The reconstruction costs of around 250 million DM for the Dresden Frauenkirche were paid almost exclusively from donations collected all over the world. After the end of WWII, however, neither the Church in the State of Saxony nor the city of Dresden had the funds, let alone technical or personnel resources to launch the rebuilding project on their own. Today, the local government driven by the love of its citizens for their city, has led to the redevelopment of the city and an effort to recreate Dresden and its magnificent beauty. Technologies and mortar mixes were tested and varied and a number of important insights could be gained. The building workers know just how to bond the stones in each individual place to create a bearing structure from the building plan. The seating area was surrounded by tall arcades supported by slender piers on all sides. Serious attempts were made in the following year to clear the rubble of the church, but were then stopped due to a lack of funding and resources. The laggings for the arches between the piers and for the inner and main dome were particularly demanding. Deadlines and schedules were jeopardised. Between 900 and 1,700 visitors enjoy the splendid view over Dresden and the landscape of the Elbe valley every day. The exhibitions cover the church’s reconstruction from a pile of rubble to a grand building. Baehr envisioned the church with a cubical base rising high above the houses surrounding it. The task posed more problems than solutions could be found. However, a solution was found: the load of approximately 270 t was lifted hydraulically in steps of 5 cm to a height of 24.5 m. This technique was further improved during later lifting processes. There were many doubts regarding the stability of this 12,200 ton heavy stone dome. At the same time building activities began to prevent the loss of further stones. The roof framework had been prefabricated by the apprentice training centre of Berufsförderungswerk Bau Sachsen e.V., assembled and then clad in metal on the building site. The masonry of the foundation could be inspected and stabilized at the same time. Although the church was not bombed, it succumbed to the city-wide fires that soon spread to the church causing the iron ring built to hold the dome to melt, which led to the dome to collapsing and the church subsequently collapsing under its own weight. The reconstruction work was essentially based on three guiding principles: The use of the building’s original substance to as large an extent as possible will make the fate of the destruction of the rebuilt Frauenkirche visibly evident for many years to come. reconstruct the Frauenkirche according to archeological reconstruction principles. In December 1736, Johann Sebastian Bach played for the first time on the church’s organ and filled the listeners with joy and admiration. Metal workers were building stairs, ladders, gratings, window grilles and handrails. At the same time, however, it is testimony to the overcoming of enmity and a sign of hope and reconciliation. The preliminary research included analyzing the existing data. The penetrating water thus had to be diverted into ducts covered by plates on the main cornice in future. The work on the destroyed altar could also be finished after years of discussions on the ‘right’ solution. In addition the joint thickness and the mortar quality must be defined and complied with. All preparatory work necessary for building the vault was now finished. The outer stonework, the spar-type frames, the staircases and the inner stonework reached the height of the window sills. Plans recovered from archives documenting the building before it collapsed were of great benefit. (above: the Frauenkirche ruins) After the reunification of Germany, enough blood, sweat and money came together for a reconstruction process to begin in the early 90s. Stiftung Frauenkirche Dresden Georg-Treu-Platz 301067 Dresden, Tel. It was his intention to place the sandstone structure into the city like a giant sculpture. The scaffolding that had been erected in the GDR era to secure the north-west corner tower was used to plot the outer façade. Relying on the experience gained during the first lifting process and thanks to technical and organisational improvements, the third canopy position was reached at a height of approximately 35 m on 23rd July 1998 after a three-day lifting process. The arrival, consecration and installation of the eight bells, only one of which originally came from the old Frauenkirche, were another outstanding event in this year. The approval plans were submitted to the surveyor’s office on 21st July 1992. This unfortunately led to severe building damage which became apparent through cracks in the piers, for example. The work was literally ‘cut out’ for the stone planners. Spatial representation with the computer was a great help. This is a very new method and a step forward for technology in the process of reconstruction. After the stone work on the inner and outer shell and spiral ramp had been finished and the last ties placed in position, the keystone of the compression ring could be laid at a height of 60 m on May 23, 2003. Another essential task was the reconstruction of the historic basements. The erection of the outer structure was the most important task in 1995. These plates were exactly the same height as the specified joint, i.e. A variety of different types of scaffolding were needed during the restoration of the Frauenkirche. In 1722 George Baehr, municipal building contractor and architect of the city, started on plans for a new building to replace the small Gothic church, the oldest parish church in the city. The essential engineering problems involved in the reconstruction of the Frauenkirche in Dresden are here presented and the relevant solution approaches shown. The lower cornice was completed as a basis or foundation as it were for the inner dome above the church room. Most of the exposed surfaces were three-dimensionally curved. The restrained décor of the interior culminates in the truly Baroque splendor of the altar and organ. The main dome that made this church so famous was now visible both from inside and outside. Architecturally, the design of the dome gave the architects and builders new scope for designing internal spaces of great height with skylights to help give a new dimension to the interior of the building. The reconstruction of selected architectural monuments was also forced ahead from the very beginning: the reconstruction of the Zwinger was completed in 1964. It was a memorable event when the basement vaults of the Frauenkirche were consecrated as the Lower Church by the Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saxony Volker Kreß on 26th August 1996. In the final winter of World War II, the allied forces bombarded Dresden and killed thousands of the residents. The groundwater rose steadily and also penetrated the Lower Church. Dome, The Frauenkirche, Dresden, Germany. This section had suffered repeated damage due to penetrating rain water. Another trial section was erected at entrance C in 1995. The curved projections of the staircase spire made it look like a butterfly. A lot of other objects were documented in addition to the stone finds. It has so many stories to tell and tries to encourage people – day by day. The reconstruction of the Frauenkirche has made this church a symbol of peace and reconciliation. The scale of the project was so vast that it was initially thought to be an impossible task. Between May and September, the master organ builder Kern from Straßburg installed and intoned the large organ. It was only in the late 1980s that renowned personalities came out for rebuilding the Frauenkirche and started to collect donations. The shapes that had to be produced were often very complex and featured multiple curves. Photo: wikimedia.org/Foto:Fortepan, Nemeth Tamas. One arch lagging set up on steel girders between the piers was curved in itself because it adjoined conically diverging lines of the piers. These openings, necessary for natural light to enter the church, detrimentally influence the otherwise perfect load transfer of the dome. Ruins of the church following World War II. The steep climb is rewarded with panoramic views over Dresden. The citizens of Dresden took the initiative and with the support of private funds started a 13 year long reconstruction and restoration process. This was preceded by a lot of careful planning. This technique was also employed in a different way for the reconstruction of the dome geometry, where historic photos were used due to the lack of old plans. In the 18th century, the famous dome structure by George Bähr was built and dominated Dresden’s cityscape for 200 years. However, the political conditions in the then GDR did no permit continuation of the commenced work. These form the upper termination of the church room. The reconstruction of the dome of the Dresden Frauenkirche was particularly complex and expensive. The first keystone was positioned, the first entrance portal – portal C – was complete. The population of the city at the time of the bombing was greater than 650,000. However, this was done not only horizontally but also vertically. 20,000 connecting pieces were needed to join the individual poles of the support and bearing structures of the main dome lagging. These allowed three-dimensional representations: all structural parts could thus be mapped spatially and their positions in the structure could be predefined and subsequently checked. Photo: wikimedia.org/Gryffidor. The aim was to rediscover the church's geometry that was lost with its destruction, to transfer this into building plans and to improve the bearing structure where necessary. Furthermore, there is a discussion about whether to reconstruct an exact replication of the original monument or to build a classical building relating more to the functional demands of today’s time. This big compound of original stones had been lying on the north side since the beginning of the rebuilding process, rotated by 180° just as it had been on the mound of rubble. The inner cupola was lit by large windows which brought filtered light into the interior. The Frauenkirche Dresden can look back on a 1000-year history. Work on the façade continued in 2000. The inner cupola rested on these wide arcades. 8,390 façade stones and interior wall and ceiling stones as well as 91,500 back-up blocks could be saved. In November 1989, committed Dresdners founded a citizen action group for rebuilding the Dresden Frauenkirche and on 13 February 1990 published an ‘Appeal from Dresden’. This is also true for a real building site. Exposed wall surfaces that had been heavily damaged by the fire were repaired. Considering these prerequisites, his assumptions were remarkably true but not absolutely accurate. Documentation in the form of audio tapes can still be found with original pieces of music from this organ. The reconstruction of monuments all over Dresden began, but the Frauenkirche remained in its rubble state for 48 more years. Window builders were inserting the glazed steel windows in the dome batter and main dome areas. Finally the ruin itself together with the large structural parts and individual pieces that could be recovered proved a great source of information. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed in the bombing of Dresden during World War II. The small brick groin vaults above the choir galleries were built first. This beautiful part of the building is a perfect piece of sandstone work and separates into load-bearing ribs and intermediate stonework in the upper section, which unfortunately will not be visible later on. But it took 45 years for the realisation of this dream to become a feasible possibility. A basis for all future tasks had been laid very quickly without overstepping the budget and in a quality that had not been thought possible. As the final stones are put in place in Dresden's Frauenkirche, long-time residents of the city recall their horrifying memories when Allied bombers destroyed the city. In this way, the Frauenkirche will testify to the history of its destruction in the future too. Nevertheless, the transport process still took too much time. The canopy was raised for the first time by 10.5 m between 6th to 8th August 1997. The whole city became a grave of rubble and dirt. Original pieces of the church were used in its reconstruction and are a darker color. The acceptance certificate for the last contract section was then signed as had already been agreed in the contract dated March 31, 1999. Last but not least, it is also an optically attractive building material. The outer wall had now reached a height of approximately 28.3 m. The masonry back-up was laid in all sections up to the same height. The canopy was raised for the first time from its initial height of 12.50 m to 23 m in August 1997. The initial work also included site studies and surveys where the rubble site was photographically documented meter by meter. On February 13th 1945, 200 hundred years after the church was constructed, Dresden was bombed and completely destroyed, and along with it the magnificent Frauenkirche. The post-tensioning technique had to be done in such a manner as to ensure that the two anchor ends be clamped into position, post-tensioned and kept from slipping out of place. Sandstone is the building material used for the Frauenkirche and many other buildings in Dresden and its surroundings. The dome is open to the public for a fee – you can climb up to the top of the bell tower. The stonework of the inner dome began in the same year. However, due to political circumstances in East Germany, the reconstruction came to a halt. The canopy was raised for a third time between 8th to 11th May 2000. These mistakes had to be avoided in the rebuilding project. Dry construction workers were covering the tension ring, shafts for risers and building single plank walls. After the erection of the canopy in June 1996, it was raised five times and retrofitted twice to adjust it to the progress of the building work. The homogeneity of the masonry work – grayish –yellow Elbe river sandstone that soon acquired a dark patina – lent the body of the building an impression of massivity and weight, adding all the more emphasis to the dynamic, soaring cupola. 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